Chill With TFC
In this series, we bring on interesting, relevant people to help you learn better from various perspectives. Life is not always about learning from people that you already agree with. We believe perspectives shape a rounder thinker.
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Women Are More Financially-Conservative, Yet Their Investments Are More Profitable? [Chills 53 with Tanya Rolfe]
Did you know that women-led startups receive only 2.5% of VC (venture capital) funding worldwide? Why is there such a disparity? Having been on both sides of the table as a past venture capitalist funding various startups and a fundraiser for her VC fund, our guest Tanya Rolfe (co-founder of sophiawomen.com) shares her thoughts and insights on the challenges that female entrepreneurs face, practical advice for female founders and why she thinks that women can be a great asset in the male-dominated finance world.
Singapore has always been a pragmatic society where the goal for most of us is to work hard and earn a decent living for our families. Pursuing our interests and embarking on unconventional career paths like urban farming doesn’t seem to be the priority but this was what our guest Christopher did even though he has a degree in aerospace engineering.
This week’s Chills with TFC is a special one as Reggie (Chief Financial Coconut) and Rakaesh (host of TFC Market Updates in Stock Geekout) come together for the first time to do a review of 2021. Find out how last year has been for them, their honest thoughts & perspectives on major themes like mental health and the phenomenon of the Great Resignation and how they plan to navigate the new year ahead!
Are you thinking of shifting into the gig economy? The traditional concept of work where one holds the same job until you retire is no longer the norm. The pandemic has accelerated the growth of the gig economy – freelancers, self-employed people, entrepreneurs and other independent doers. Without the support & resources from companies, how do independent doers in the gig economy find work and structure their time?
Chills 50 provides everything you need to know about how to adapt & thrive in the gig economy as we hear from Helle Priess, CEO and founder of Doerscircle, a platform that focuses on the needs of independent doers. Get ready for the future of work!
“Heads or tails, you still win”. This is the position that our guest Tee Leng aims for in his investing journey: he will always benefit from the market no matter what happens to it. How does he find that investment sweet spot? With more than 10 years of experience as a portfolio manager at Heritage Capital Global Fund, Tee Leng shares his thoughts on how the pandemic contributed to his shift from value investing to growth investing and the current market trends to look out for.
Did you know you can actually become a millionaire if you only invest $7 a day? In this week’s episode, we talk hedge fund manager, Michael Gilmore who has stumbled upon an amazing discovery on how everyone can become a millionaire. Listen in to not only better understand how you can be a millionaire yourself, but how you can also help your loved ones achieve this amazing feat!
How Politics and Finances Are Intertwined [Chills 47 with Walid from Teh Tarik Podcast]Like it or not, politics determines many things in our lives, including our financial options. Join us in today's session to see how you can be political without having to be an...
This episode is for all the ladies in the house. Even though 70% of the financial decisions at home are made by women, finance has always been a topic that is male-dominated. Why is this so? Statistically speaking, women live longer so having a financial plan is even more vital for them. Why do some women find it hard to talk about finance and investments? What are some ways to get women started on investing? We invite Anna, founder of The New Savvy, Asia’s leading financial, investment and career platform for women to share how women can and should be part of the conversation on investing and personal finance too!
Most of us know LinkedIn as a social networking platform for professionals but very few know how to optimize their LinkedIn profiles and stand out from the (virtual) crowd. Is there an optimal time to post on LinkedIn? What exactly is the 4-1-1, and what is the only paid advertising tool worth paying for on LinkedIn? Take a LinkedIn & Personal Branding 101 class with us as we invite Chris, founder of Black Marketing and the only CEO with a mohawk to share useful tips and strategies to improve your personal branding on LinkedIn!
“Would you prefer to be in a lot of debt but have two cars or would you prefer to have just a bicycle but be financially free?” This is what Adrian challenges us to think about in Part Two of his debt story as he shares how his family went through this difficult period with him, interesting strategies he used to stop himself from buying ‘shiny new things’ and the valuable lessons he learnt about money & personal finance.
Can you imagine having a debt of almost a million dollars? That was what Adrian, a serial entrepreneur and father of four experienced at one point in his entrepreneurial journey. He shares his raw and honest story in this week’s Chills with TFC. This is Part One of Adrian’s story as he explains what got him into this predicament, how it affected his life & the lives of his loved ones and the initial steps he took to get out of debt which included counselling a local organisation and some debt financing strategies that he learnt along the way.
In the past, investing was perceived as a private activity between you and your broker. It seemed inappropriate to be poking your nose into how others manage their finances. All these changed with the internet. Nowadays, there are many investing communities where investors have no qualms about sharing and discussing their investments. This phenomenon culminated in the unprecedented Wall Street Bets/GameStop saga where retail investors banded together and prevailed over traditional financial institutions.
Is there really power in numbers, or will we fall into a case of monkey see, monkey do? In Chills 43, we discuss more about the social aspect of investing with Ethan Ho, COO of Investing Note, an investing community in Singapore!
In 2009, Bitcoin was introduced to the world and since then, the world of cryptocurrency has been exploding at an unprecedented speed. If you are interested in crypto investing but terms like Bitcoin halving, HODL, yield farming and NFTs sound confusing to you, then you definitely need to listen to this week’s Chills with TFC! We invite Hayden Hughes, CEO and co-founder of Alpha Impact, a cryptocurrency copy trading platform to break down the intricacies of cryptocurrencies for you. Learn how you can trade cryptocurrencies and get better returns!
In your opinion, what makes a good career? Is it one that promises financial independence or a career that allows you to have a balance between work & life? No matter what your personal preferences are, having a satisfying career is definitely important in the life of a working adult. What are some ways to determine if a job is the right fit for you? How do we build rapport with our colleagues and bosses, especially in the current trend of remote work? We invite blogger Jeraldine Phneah to share her experiences and advice with us in this week’s Chills with TFC!
Here at The Financial Coconut, we are on a mission to question, analyse and evaluate financial myths in Singapore. Are Singaporeans badly paid? Should asset appreciation be the main reason to buy a HDB flat? Is it true that CPF is going to take away all our money? These are some of the hot topics concerning life in Singapore but think about it: when was the last time you really questioned if they are true or not? To help debunk these myths with us, we have Rovik & Elliot from SG Explained, an explainer podcast on all things Singaporean!
Imagine this: 37% of your monthly gross salary goes into a fund for as long as you are holding a job. What can you do with the accumulated money? The possibilities are endless. This is why the CPF (Central Provident Fund) is so integral to every working adult in Singapore.
Adding on to the possibilities is Endowus, who is paving the way by being the sole provider of low cost index funds through the CPF IS (Investment Scheme) system. Listen to Chills 39 as Samuel (CIO) & Sheng Shi (personal finance lead) of Endowus share the rationale behind CPF investing, the factors involved and how it can benefit you!
REITs (Real Estate Investment Trusts) have always been a popular investment choice among many retail investors. How do we incorporate REITs in our retirement planning as well? Can REITs be part of our Covid-19 recovery play? What are some ways to evaluate REITs and what are some global REITs to look out for? Explore the world of REITs with Kenny Loh, REIT specialist and independent financial advisor in this week’s Chills with TFC!
As individuals, they do not have much impact, but when they unite, they can sway the markets. Retail investor groups are on the rise. With advanced connectivity and knowledge, they band up, making collective decisions that could swing the markets as much as some institutions. What is the future of investments with them in the mix? In this week’s episode of Chills with TFC, we have Gavin Chia, managing director of FUTU SG to discuss the evolution of the investment scene, legacy, investment methods and risks.
We see them on the streets everyday. Everyone wants one but only some get to own them. Cars – Did you know the cost of car ownership is not just Certificate Of Entitlement (COE), purchase price, fuel, and parking? Are you 100% sure you are ready for car ownership, or should you be owning a car in the first place?
Credit cards – almost everyone has it, with many having multiple cards. Everyone who owns it knows the general function of swipe it now, get your goods/services and worry about payment later when the bill comes. But is that all to it? Many are confused on which card to apply for. Which card is best for a certain occasion? Are they giving you the benefits you seek or are they brewing up a storm in your finances?
Buy Now, Pay Later: How Does It Work? [Chills 34 With Hoolah]
The advancement of technology has given rise to a number of innovative fintech solutions and one of them is Buy Now, Pay Later (BNPL) where consumers get to buy products without having to pay the full price upfront. Instead, they pay zero-interest instalments over a period of time. How does this actually work and what are the possibilities for both consumers and merchants? Could BNPL spell trouble for consumers who might overspend, or is this an opportunity for others?
This is a special TFC Chills x Stock Geekout (SGO) episode as we give you a sneak peek into an upcoming SGO episode! Together with Thomas Chua, founder of SteadyCompounding.com, we deep dive into one of the most promising companies in the current market: Sea Limited. This is Part One of the SGO episode where we analyse Garena, its gaming arm and also its cash cow as it produces more than 90% of Sea Limited’s revenue. How is it possible that a mobile game is able to fuel its other businesses – popular e-commerce platform Shopee and FinTech business SeaMoney? What sets Garena apart from its competitors? How should we assess the sustainability of Garena’s business?
Investing is not just about stock analysis. Studying the economy as a whole, also known as the macro economic view also plays a critical role in your investment decisions. Does the US-China trade war affect the two countries only? What impact does inflation have on our portfolios and how should we plan for it? In this week’s Chills with TFC, we invited Freddy Lim, CIO of Stashaway to dissect these macro ideas in detail. This is definitely a must listen for those who are not so familiar with macro ideas!
China, China, China… everyone seems to be on its case these days but do you know exactly what is happening with the recent regulations in the Chinese market? Before you cry foul at the government’s “control” of the market, perhaps it will be helpful to gain a deeper understanding of what’s happening on the ground and the relationship between the Chinese government and its economy by listening to this week’s Chills with TFC. We had a lively discussion with Thomas Chua of SteadyCompounding.com and Eugene Ng from Vision Capital. They also share their personal insights on other Chinese sectors like tech, financial and construction so this is an episode not to be missed!
If you have been listening to TFC, the guest for this week’s Chills with TFC should be no stranger to you. He is none other than the Chief Financial Coconut himself: Reggie! This is a special TFC episode as Andrew invites Reggie to reflect on The Financial Coconut journey thus far. How did TFC actually start? What is the production process like? What were some ups and downs in Reggie’s podcasting journey? Why is he handing Chills over to Andrew? Listen to Reggie’s innermost thoughts and reflections in Chills 30!
Have you ever bought something from a Kickstarter campaign? The increasing popularity of crowdfunding has led to many ingenious ideas becoming reality while consumers are spoilt for choice and they get to enjoy discounts on their shopping too. It is indeed a win-win for everyone. Contrary to popular belief, you do not need a large capital to launch a Kickstarter campaign. In fact, Ryan thinks you only need about $2000. How is that possible? What does it take for a Kickstarter campaign to become successful? Go behind the (Kickstarter) scenes in Chills 29 as Reggie and Ryan (a Kickstarter veteran) elaborate on what you need to do to launch your own Kickstarter campaign!
Mention the phrase “endowment plans” and some would be put off by the long maturity period (30 years!) In spite of that, did you know that endowment plans continue to be a very popular investment option with 2.3 million endowment policies incepted in Singapore thus far? What is the appeal behind bonds and endowment plans? What is the difference between endowment plans and traded endowment plans? How can retail investors take advantage of them amidst low interest rates in the current market? Listen to Chills 28 where Peter and Deborah from InvestQuest share their knowledge on bonds and endowment plans and how you can incorporate them in your investments!
“China outdrank the world”. In the last decade, China has emerged as a global economic superpower as it underwent major growth throughout the country. Now, we see the Chinese influence everywhere and many retail investors are looking for opportunities to get a share of this pie. What do we need to understand about the Chinese market? What exactly is driving the massive growth in China and will it ever come to a stop? What are some risk factors when it comes to investing in China? In this week’s Chills with TFC, we invite Alvin Chow, the founder of Dr Wealth, one of the leading investment communities in Singapore to share his expertise and thoughts on the China stock market.
If someone told you 15 years ago that you could achieve an annual percentage yield of 1000% in your investment, you would probably walk away from this crazy person. However, this actually became reality for some in the DeFi space, also known as decentralized finance. As with cryptocurrency, DeFi is pushing the boundaries on how we think about finance. What exactly is decentralized finance? Why is it making waves among investors? How should we evaluate and decide which DeFi projects to include in our investment portfolio? Dr Julian Hosp from Cake DeFi enlightens us on this exciting space in this week’s Chills with TFC!
Cryptocurrency seems to be the hype and making waves these days with many people gaining crazy returns from their crypto investments. It certainly sounds very exciting but before we pour our life savings into cryptocurrency, we need to ask ourselves some fundamental questions: how should we form our investment strategy when it comes to cryptocurrency, how do I go about investing in it and how do I make money in this space? For this week’s Chills With TFC, we have Eugene Ng from Gemini (one of the largest cryptocurrency exchanges in the world) to tell us more!
Did you know that there’s actually more money in the bond market than the stock markets? If Batman is an equity, Robin would be a bond. That’s how Jean Paul Wong, general manager from FSMOne views bonds. In the world of investing, bonds are often overlooked as they are not as ‘exciting’ as stocks. However, that does not mean bonds are not worth investing. In this week’s Chills 24 with The Financial Coconut, Jean Paul and Reggie discuss the potential of bonds as an investment product and some factors to consider when evaluating different types of bonds such as government bonds and Asian high yield bonds.
Many millennials nowadays are starting to pay more attention to environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues and this phenomenon has given rise to a new form of investing known as ESG investing. What are the factors one should consider in ESG investing and how can investors make sure that they do well in the market while doing good in the world at the same time? Discover the world of ESG investing in this week’s episode of Chills with TFC as Samuel from Endowus tells us more!
Estate planning is one topic that many tend to avoid because it involves death and sometimes, it just seems so complicated. On the other hand, some oversimplify it; they think doing up a will alone is enough. Eleanor and Mei Kuen attempt to dispel these misconceptions and explain why estate planning is important for everyone (not just the rich and/or old) in this enlightening episode from a special TFC Chills series brought to you by Providend, Singapore’s first fee-only wealth advisory firm.
Do you have an insurance plan? Most people would be familiar with buying insurance plans to protect themselves and their loved ones from accidents and illnesses. Recently, there has been growing interest in the idea of buying term insurance and investing the rest of your money. What exactly is term insurance, how is it different from the other types of insurance plans out there and why do Chee Kian and Bryan recommend getting it? Find out more from this episode of a special TFC Chills series brought to you by Providend, Singapore’s first fee-only wealth advisory firm.
Every race has a finish line. In the minds of many people, the finish line in the marathon of life is retirement, where one enjoys his life at 65 after decades of working. What if we can have multiple, mini retirements in our lifetime instead? How do we go about achieving that while ensuring that our finances are in good order?
Finding your better half and planning for your big day with your partner… these are indeed some of the most wonderful moments in life. When a couple decides to spend the rest of their lives together, what are some factors to consider when it comes to managing their finances? Chin Yu & Yong Cheng share more in this episode from a special TFC Chills series brought to you by Providend, Singapore’s first fee-only wealth advisory firm.
REITs (also known as Real Estate Investment Trust) is a popular investment tool that has garnered many fans in land-scarce Singapore. What is so appealing about REITs in the Singapore stock market and how do we evaluate one?
In episode #17 of Chills w TFC, we bring on the investment content lead of Singapore’s leading personal finance platform, Seedly. For many new stock pickers looking at Singapore stocks, there’s a natural gravity towards some big companies, like the big banks, SIA, Singtel, Sembcorp…But, all these brands that are supposedly household names, may not necessarily be performing well. And guest today will explain why. Join me as I chill with Sudhan from Seedly to discuss about the business fundamentals for some of the big companies in Singapore. How are the banking, telco and airlines businesses in Singapore doing? How should we evaluate whether a bank stock is good to own? How important good management for companies in Singapore? How to balance high dividends and low growth? Is it a concern when companies start to acquire other businesses to grow instead of growing their own business? What are the main pointers to look out for when evaluation dividend companies? Tune in to find out!
In episode #16 of Chills w TFC, we bring on a founder of People Mentality Inc (one of APAC’s top 10 HR and Employer Branding consultancy firm) and Stories of Asia (a Storyteller Incubator). Being someone who has made his mark in the local and regional HR space, he will share with us a whole different way of looking at personal branding. Whether you want to make changes in your company, embark on a new project, or pursue the life that you love, personal branding will aid you in that journey. Join me as I chill with Sam Neo from Stories of Asia to dive deep into personal branding. What is personal branding, why it matters and how to build trust? How do you show that you’re an expert without saying you’re an expert? What are some practical steps to build your personal branding without spending too much time? How to make yourself more visible without being loud? How can you build more meaningful connections, not just network? Tune to to find out!
Ep 15: How Can You Leverage on Your Corporate Experience to Start a Business? – Gustavo Liu from Rescale Lab
In episode #15 of Chills w TFC, we bring on a high flying corporate banker who left his job and founded his own tech startup, Rescale Lab, a venture building ecosystem. Essentially, what they do is they help people start businesses lah and they built a software stack to facilitate this process. Join me as I chill with Gustavo Liu from Rescale Lab to discuss about the entrepreneurship. What are some main challenges people face when trying to become an entrepreneur? How does he go about choosing the right people to hang out with? What are some things he had to adapt to when transitioning from his corporate life to an entrepreneurial life? Tune to to find out!
In episode #14 of Chills w TFC, we bring on crypto-enthusiast who has worked in Bain & Co, Zilingo and multiple start-ups. NFTs(Non fungible tokens) have been making their rounds in the media cycle. But, what do they actually do and what potential do they bring to the table? Join me as I chill with Reuben Noronha to dive deep into NFTs. How does NFTs work? What is going on in the space? What is the potential that it can bring to the table for the creator economy? What is the technology behind it? Can this be a potential latest investment tool out there today? How can you pick NFTs and how does that work? How are they priced? What are some risks in buying NFTs? Tune to to find out!
Ep 13: What is the Future for White Collar Work & How Can You Prepare for it? – Ricky Willianto from Ravenry
In episode #13 of Chills w TFC, we bring on the founder of one of leading platform for freelance white-collar flexible work, Ravenry. Covid has accelerated many trends, remote work being one of them. As companies become comfortable with remote work, the talent pool is no longer geographically restrained. So how do we stand out from this global brain market? Join me as I chill with Ricky Willianto from Ravenry to discuss about the future of white collar work. What are some potential opportunities in the transformation of work? How does it affect your work and life? How to stand out and position yourself as the way of competing for jobs change? And what are some practical steps you can do? How do you choose an employer to work with? Tune to to find out!
Ep 12: How can Retail Investors Profit from Innovation of Smart Contract? – Colin Miles from Zilliqa
In episode #12 of Chills w TFC, we bring on the Chief Commercial Officer of Ziliqa. Ziliqa is a highly innovative cryptocurrency company that was born out of NUS and aims to make blockchains faster and more scalable. Join me as I chill with Colin Miles from Ziliqa to discuss about smart contracts. Why should one consider using a blockchain transaction platform compared to a traditional transaction platform? Why should an investor care about NFT? With all that innovation going on, how then can retail investors like us profit from this? How can we embrace the technology of smart contract? Tune to to find out!
In episode #11 of Chills w TFC, we bring on the founder of one of leading Robo-advisors in the B2B space, AutoWealth. He believes that passive investing with low fees is the way forward for many. While there are many ways to invest today, he is staying old-school by buying assets to generate cashflow. To him, there’s a science and logic behind it all. Join me as I chill with Ow Tai Zhi from AutoWealth to discuss about what is going on in the market, from rising bond yield, to inflation risk, stock market fluctuation and bitcoin taking the centre stage. How should we view all these things while managing our investment portfolios? Will the rise of all things digital change the way we invest? How should we embrace all these dynamism out there? Tune to to find out!
In episode #10 of Chills w TFC, we bring on the co-founder behind Xfers, Singapore’s first and only stable coin backed by MAS. In the fast-growing world of cryptocurrency, there’re all sorts of coins and functions. A stable coin is a new class of cryptocurrencies that don’t really fluctuate and is often used as a medium of transaction. Join me as I chill with Victor Liew from Xfers to discuss about stable coins and the future of cryptocurrency. What value can Bitcoin and stable coins have for you? Will they replace traditional financial system? What keeps stable coin works and who governs it? What are some financial possibilities and applications that can arise from stable coins in the future?
Ep 9: Will Decentralised Finance take over Traditional Financial System? – Arthur Cheong from DeFiance Capital
In episode #9 of Chills w TFC, we bring on one of the leaders in the decentralised finance crypto space. He was an oil trader turn crypto investor. Today, he runs his own cryptoasset investment fund. Join me as I chill with Arthur Cheong from DeFiance Capital to discuss about the broad view of the crypto market. What is going on? What is blockchain? What are the different types of coins and what do they do? Where is the money going into? Where does bitcoin stand in this whole equation? Where does he sees the future? Tune in to find out!
In episode #8 of Chills w TFC, we bring on a very popular investment blogger. He runs counter to the broadly diversified portfolio beliefs and has a very concentrated portfolio. But, how does he go about doing it? And can he outperform the market? Join me as I chill with Chris Lee Susanto from Re-thinkwealth blog to discuss about the concentrated portfolio strategy. What are some key factors to look out for in a high quality company? How to hunt for high quality companies? Is valuation really that important in investing? How to evaluate whether the management and business is good? Tune in to find out!
Ep 7: Why some Leasehold Properties Don’t Depreciate Much Overtime? – Maureen from Abiel Real Estate Fund
In episode #7 of Chills w TFC, we bring on the CEO and founder from Abiel Real Estate Fund, Maureen Li. She is a seasoned commercial and residential property investor with years of experience in Australia and Singapore property markets. Join me as I chill with Maureen and discuss how we should look at leasehold HDBs and Condos. Should you get HDB before you get Condo? Why do some people buy HDB even when they can afford Condos? What is the tenure you should consider buying and selling? Why is it that some leasehold properties don’t depreciate much even as they age? Tune in to find out!
In episode #6 of Chills w TFC, we bring on the CEO of a company that has been leading the charge in the local financial social enterprise scene. In investing, stocks often steal the limelight, while bonds are often the sidekick. Most of us don’t pay much attention to bonds. However, they can actually play an important role in your portfolio. Join me as I chill with Chuin Ting from Money Owl and dig her brain to understand how bond works. Bonds have a very different way of making money. But, how exactly do they make money? How can you pick your own bond fund? Can you make money in the current bond environment where there’s a lot of negative yield? Tune in to find out!
In episode #5 of Chills w TFC, we bring on someone that took the path less traveled. He found his way from being a stock-picking enthusiast to becoming a fund manager and running a very popular stock picking blog. Join me as I chill with Ser Jing from The Good Investors blog and discuss topics surrounding growth and value investing. When to sell stocks? Are there any industries that are in a long-term secular decline? How highly does valuation come into play in the buying process? Why are some stocks short term expensive, but long term cheap? What are some key concerns buying Chinese companies? How he search for good stock bargains? Tune in to find out!
In episode #4 of Chills w TFC, we bring on the co-founder and the chief investment officer of a company that has dominated the Robo-Advisor scene in Singapore since 2016. Join me as I chill with Freddy Lim from Stashaway to give you a broad overview of the markets and major investment themes for 2021. Will the US-China dispute continue to affect your investments? Can China’s financial markets finally be trusted? Will the US be able to keep giving us good returns over time? Or are we too late to join massive tech disruptor growth like Tesla and Bitcoin? How should Singaporeans look to invest locally and abroad? Tune in to find out!
In episode #3 of Chills w TFC, we bring on one of Singapore’s most popular investing blogger. He offers much insights to both season and new investors. What’s even more impressive is that he publishes his portfolio on his website. Join me as I chill with Kyith from Investment Moats. He shares some important habits someone a new investor should have. You also get to hear why he finally decided to venture into USA’s and Hong Kong’s stock market after being in the local market for so long. Many people think that you have to invest to retire. BUT, he shares a different point of view. Not everyone has to be an investor to build wealth. Tune in to find out why.
Ep 2: “FIRE is overrated! Manage your finances to live your best life.” – Christopher Tan from Providend
In episode #2 of Chills w TFC, we bring on a powerhouse in Singapore’s Financial Planning space. He took off against the tide to run Singapore’s 1st Fee-only financial planning firm, meaning he does not make a commission off his recommendations. Everyone has their “Ideal life” and in that process, we seek to set up our finances to fulfill the life we love, but he thinks many are taking things to the extreme and may unknowingly be spending too much in this pursuit. Join me as I chill with Christopher Tan from Providend to dig his brains into how he thinks about managing life alongside finances and help you figure better strategies on your journey.
Dylan and Ava, although very young in their teens, have done multiple Ted Talks and run numerous successful kickstarter projects, such as One Kind block and GIY Stick. In this episode, they share how they manage their lives and their perspectives on various aspects of life. They also talk about how education, learning and growth is envision in their family, and how all these has help to shape them to become who they are today.